Powerlifting Competition Rules: Deadlift Guidelines

Powerlifting Competition Rules: Deadlift Guidelines

Powerlifting Competitions are not exactly for everybody, but anyone can turn himself into a great candidate for a powerlifter. The hardest part aren’t only within the training journey of a powerlifter. Instead, there are specific rules that each powerlifter must keep in mind and follow, which is not always easy. In this article, we will be discussing one of the areas that is covered by powerlifting competition rules: the deadlift.

Deadlifting Movement Standards

Deadlifting Movement Standards

In a powerlifting competition, you will have three judges checking that you comply with the following motions standards.

A referee’s assessment of your movement criteria may be subjective. One referee may believe you’re locked out, while another may believe your shoulders are rounded and not “back.”

This is why, rather than getting unanimous backing from all officials, you only need a’majority’ of referees (two out of three) to believe the lift was good (three out of three). If you finish the lift and see two or three white lights, the lift was successful. However, if you observe two or three red lights, the lift was defective.

The best way to ensure you pass your lifts in competition is to first understand the movement standards listed below, and then to follow these standards strictly in training. I have a proverb:

In competition, your worst rep in training is your best rep.

If you approach your training with this in mind, you will see white lights when competing. Without further ado, let’s go over the standards in further depth.

This article’s regulations will be based on International Powerlifting Federation (IPF) and USA Powerlifting (USAPL) standards. While most powerlifting contests have similar regulations, each federation will have different differences.

The IPF rulebook also specifies what you may and may not wear during competition. Certain brands and models of equipment are permitted. Check out my top choices for powerlifting-approved competition gear.

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  1. The bar cannot descend farther before reaching its final position.

The bar cannot go downward after you begin the up phase off the floor.

This involves having one side of the bar dip down or the entire bar dip down. If you read my bench press technique rules, you would know that on the bench press, one side of the barbell can dip down and yet be a solid lift. This is not the case with the deadlift. Any downward movement is deemed a failed lift.

Sometimes the bar will slide downward because it will slip in your palm from its starting position. This is why it’s crucial that once you’ve set your grip, it stays fastened to the bar. Please read my article on how to improve your deadlift grip. Other reasons for the bar to drop down include losing your balance, losing mid-back strength, or having the bar come off of you in the mid-range.

Now, I just claimed the bar cannot travel down, but can the bar stop? Yes.

The bar can stop halfway through the range of motion and the lift will still be good as long as the bar continues upward.

  1. You must stand tall with your shoulders back.

Let’s break this down into two parts: “stand erect” and “shoulders back.”

Standing erect means having your torso straight or perpendicular to the ground. This represents your torso’s final position. This means you don’t have to ‘lean back’ any further than this straight up and down position. Many lifters will lean too far back, and this extra range of motion is simply wasted effort that will not earn you any more points with the officials.

Shoulders back refer to your shoulder blades being retracted. You want to keep your shoulders from curving forward. If your upper back is rounding, it’s because your muscles aren’t strong enough to bring your shoulder blades back into place. Therefore, your torso can be erect, but your shoulder might be rounded, which would be deemed a terrible lift.

  1. At the end of the lift, you must stand with your knees straight.

To complete the exercise, your body must be erect and your shoulders back, and your knees must be locked.

Flexing your quads is the simplest technique to lock your knees. When you flex your quads, your knees are forced into extension. So, if you’re unsure whether your knees are locked, engage your quads while standing at lock-out and you’ll avoid any bending.

If you’re having trouble locking your knees in the lock-out, it could be because you’re leaning too far back with your body. Remember what I said about your torso being erect? If you pull any further than is absolutely necessary, your knees may droop.

  1. During the lift, the bar cannot rest on the thighs.

When the bar sits on the thighs during the deadlift, this is called a hitch.

Remember that the bar can come to a stop (as long as it doesn’t fall), but it cannot come to a stop and rest on the thighs. It’s also worth noting that hitching is permitted in the sport of Strongman. However, in the context of powerlifting, it is not.

  1. During the ‘up phase,’ you cannot step forward or back or move your feet laterally.

This guideline only applies to the ‘up’ part of the movement.

So, once you started upward movement of the barbell, you cannot shift your feet from the start position to lock-out.

During the down phase, this rule does not apply. You may move your feet after receiving the ‘down’ signal from the head referee. Most lifters will not move their feet during the ‘down’ phase, but if you do, it is not grounds for failure.

  1. You must return the bar to the floor while keeping both hands in control.

When the head referee gives the ‘down’ command, your hands must be gripping the barbell the entire time.

This regulation prevents you from dropping the bar from hip height after locking the weight out. In other activities where you see deadlifts taking place, like Crossfit or Strongman, it’s acceptable to drop the barbell during lock-out. In powerlifting, however, these would be grounds for failure.

You can drop the barbell to the floor quickly, i.e. you don’t have to gently put the weight down. But you must keep your hands on the bar at all times.

Deadlifting Instructions You Must Follow

Deadlifting Instructions You Must Follow

Now that you understand the technical movement criteria, you must also obey the referees’ directions.

Failure to comply with any referee directions will result in the lift being disqualified, even if all other movement standards are met. It can be exceedingly upsetting to miss an attempt because you did not follow the orders when you were physically capable of doing so. However, there is a law that you must obey the directions because it is the referee’s responsibility to guarantee you keep control of the movement at particular stages of the lift.

In the deadlift, there is only one command – “DOWN.”

Unlike the squat and bench press, which include orders to begin and end the activity, the deadlift does not. Once the head referee believes you have achieved the “lockout position” with your hips, knees, and shoulders locked, the only command you will hear is “DOWN.”

Rules for Choosing Deadlift Attempts

You will choose the next load to hoist after each attempt.

For example, once you’ve completed your opener, you must choose your second attempt. You can either repeat the same weight (if you failed the previous time) or go up. If you decide to go up, you cannot select a load that is below the weight that you just lift. At minimum, you must go up by 2.5kg, and after you select the load, you cannot adjust the weight. The same rules apply once you’ve completed the second attempt and are deciding on weights for the third.

With the exception of the third attempt deadlift, these principles apply to the squat, bench press, and deadlift. On the third attempt deadlift, you have the opportunity to adjust your initial third attempt up to two times.

For example, let’s imagine on your second attempt you deadlifted 100kg successfully and you’re in a competition for 1st place. You next walk over to the score-table and select 110kg for your third attempt. After seeing a few lifters go before you, you understand that all you need to accomplish to place 1st is 105kg. At that moment, you can reduce your weight from 110kg to 105kg. You may drop the weight as long as it does not fall below the weight you lifted on the second try (remember, this exception only applies to the 3rd attempt deadlift).

As an alternative, suppose you needed 115kg to win. You might increase your starting weight from 110kg to 115kg. You could also adjust your attempt a second time if you wanted to. So you might lower your attempt from 110kg to 105kg, then back up to 115kg. But, once you submitted your change request for the second time, you must go and lift the designated weight.

General Powerlifting Competition Rules That Apply To Deadlifting

If you are going to compete in powerlifting, I recommend you to understand the regulations as it doesn’t really matter how strong you are unless you’re playing by the rules.

The following are some general guidelines to follow:

  • After loading the bar, you have 60 seconds to begin the deadlift (initiate movement on the bar)
  • You have 60 seconds after the lift to submit the load for the next attempt to the score-table.
  • You must wear the appropriate lifting attire for the day, which includes a singlet, t-shirt, shoes, belt, wrist wraps, and knee sleeves. Everything must be in accordance with the equipment requirements.
  • No adhesives may be used on the shoe’s bottom (an advantage for sumo deadlifts who have a wide stance)
  • No straps can be used to enhance your grip on deadlifts. Double overhand, mixed grip, or hook grip must be used.

Final Thoughts

When competing in a powerlifting competition, you must observe the competition regulations, including movement requirements and referee directives.

It makes no difference if you have the strength to complete the movement. If you do not conform to the technical standards of the sport, you will not pass the lift in competition.

Each rule establishes a regulated method for every athlete to follow, and this is the primary distinction between deadlifting in the gym and deadlifting in a competition.

If you practice the movement requirements in training, you’ll find that you’re capable of reaching your full potential in competition.

Safe Steroid Cycle: Is It Possible?

Safe Steroid Cycle: Is It Possible?

Do you want to start steroid cycles but don’t know where to start? So look no further. This article will offer you with an introduction to steroid cycles. We’ll go through the many forms of steroids available, as well as how to build a safe and effective cycle. So, whether you’re a complete beginner or just seeking for new ideas, keep reading to learn everything you need to know about steroid cycles!

What are Steroids?

Anabolic steroids, also known as anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS), are synthetic versions of testosterone, a naturally occurring male hormone. These supplements are properly referred to as “anabolic-androgenic steroids,” which reflects the fact that they have both anabolic and androgenic effects.

Anabolic steroids boost protein levels within cells, particularly in skeletal muscles. This can result in muscle growth, enhanced muscle strength, and faster recovery from strenuous exercise. Some anabolic steroids are even metabolized in the body into estrogens or dihydrotestosterone, which can have feminizing effects in men who take high enough quantities.

The term “androgenic” refers to effects similar to those of the hormone testosterone, such as facial hair growth, acne development, and voice deepening. The term “steroidal” refers to the fact that the structure of these supplements is similar to that of the hormone cholesterol, which is a precursor molecule for all steroid hormones (including testosterone).

How effective are steroids?

How effective are steroids?

There are three basic reasons why anabolic steroids are such effective performance enhancers. They have a high anabolic to androgenic ratio, for starters. This means that the supplements are more likely to improve rather than degrade your performance.

Second, steroid hormones do not degrade in the body into inactive metabolites. Because synthetic forms of these supplements do not degrade into inactive by-products, they remain in your system considerably longer than natural testosterone.

Finally, they can be combined with intensive exercise to promote muscular growth and strength development. This is due to the fact that steroid hormones, such as testosterone, stimulate cellular machinery, which in turn activates the genes responsible for muscle growth (satellite cells).

How do steroids work?

Steroids function by attaching to specific receptors in target tissue throughout the body that have been specifically engineered to interact with the hormone. Steroid hormones will then penetrate your cells to fulfill their purpose once connected.

Steroid hormones affect both the neurological and endocrine systems. The latter refers to any system in which glands release substances (such as hormones) that have an effect on the body. The nervous system is in charge of cell connections, such as muscle cells interacting with receptors.

Types of Steroids: What Are They?

Types of Steroids: What Are They?

There are numerous forms of steroids accessible for anyone who wish to utilize them. Scientists classify these supplements based on their chemical structure and properties, allowing them to be divided into several groups.

Because several of these molecules have a structure similar to cholesterol, they are frequently referred to as “steroidal” hormones. The following are the most frequent forms of anabolic steroids:

  1. Testosterone is a naturally occurring steroid hormone generated by men’s testicles, women’s ovaries, and both sexes’ adrenal cortex. This is the “original” anabolic steroid, and it has been used to increase muscle mass in sports for decades (especially powerlifters).
  2. Nandrolone- identical to testosterone, but with additional structural alterations that allow it to be used orally. This means that it can be given as a tablet, eliminating the need for injections (which may cause side-effects such as pain at the injection site, bleeding and swelling).
  3. Trenbolone- structurally identical to nandrolone, but has extra changes that allow it to bind better to androgen receptors. It is also known as the most powerful steroid available.
  4. Stanozolol is a modified type of testosterone that is more “bioavailable,” which means it is better absorbed by your body. This kind has a higher anabolic to androgenic ratio, making it perfect for powerlifters trying to bulk up.
  5. Methenolone is comparable to testosterone, however it interacts with androgen receptors differently. This increases the strength-enhancing impact of methenolone, allowing athletes to lift larger weights during training sessions.
  6. Fluoxymesterone is an orally active steroid that is more similar to testosterone than the other steroids. This makes it an excellent choice for athletes seeking to gain strength and muscle mass while avoiding injections.
  7. Winstrol- a popular anabolic steroid among powerlifters, this anabolic steroid impacts your body in a way that allows you to lift higher weights and aids in fat burning (burning more calories).
  8. Dianabol is comparable to testosterone, but it has been changed such that it interacts differently with androgen receptors, making it easier for the body to absorb and break down. This improves muscle strength and leads to muscle mass gain.
  9. Oral Turinabol is a testosterone derivative with a chlorine atom added to one of its components. This alters its behavior, allowing it to be broken down by the liver rather than muscle tissue (which makes it more like a drug used for treating conditions such as anemia). It also extends its half-life, making oral turinabol a viable alternative for sportsmen aiming to gain muscle mass and strength.
  10. Nandrolone Decanoate is a longer acting variant of nandrolone that is administered intramuscularly. It is intended to have a long-term effect on muscle mass gain, fat loss, and strength increase. This sort of steroid is more commonly utilized by powerlifters and bodybuilders who want to get the most out of a short training regimen.

What is a steroid cycle?

A steroid cycle is a period of time, lasting from several weeks to several months, during which an individual uses a certain steroid or set of steroids to generate specific performance-enhancing benefits. People like stacking various (2-4) forms of steroids at once to gain optimum benefits in sports where athletes demand quick improvements in physical ability without loss of power (such as powerlifting). This is known as “pyramiding” and is normally done every 6-8 weeks. Athletes in drug-tested sports prefer a mixture of shorter acting steroids that have only minor performance improvement effects over a short period of time and are out of the system in 4-6 weeks. This is due to the fact that they must pass drug testing before competing.

Many competitors in non-tested sports utilize longer acting steroids like nandrolone and testosterone enanthate, which can linger in the system for up to 10-12 weeks.

How long does the steroid cycle last?

A steroid cycle might last anywhere from a few weeks to several months. Pyramiding is frequently employed in powerlifting during the early weeks to rapidly gain muscle mass and strength. People frequently switch to lesser dosages or stop using steroids entirely near the end of a training phase (known as post cycle therapy or PCT) to allow their bodies to heal and produce testosterone naturally.

Beginner Steroid Cycle

Many bodybuilders and athletes choose to begin with a 4- to 8-week rookie steroid cycle. In this situation, the following steroids are typically stacked:

  • Testosterone enanthate or cypionate – As the most fundamental of all anabolic steroids, testosterone is frequently utilized as the foundation of steroid cycles by beginners. In comparison to other steroids, it has minor anabolic effects and is less prone to generate negative effects.
  • Nandrolone decanoate – This anabolic steroid also has some progestogenic activity, which can help with fat loss. It has a slower acting effect than testosterone and is frequently stacked to give a longer lasting steroid cycle.
  • Winstrol is commonly used by bodybuilders and fitness models at the end of their steroid cycles to boost fat reduction and assist preserve muscular structure. This substance can be used alone or in combination with other steroids such as nandrolone and testosterone.

Intermediate Steroid Cycle

A steroid cycle of 10-12 weeks is recommended for intermediate anabolic steroid users who have completed a few cycles. In this situation, the following steroids are typically stacked:

  • Testosterone enanthate or cypionate is the most fundamental of all steroids, and it is recommended for intermediate users. It increases the duration of the effects of other medications and makes them run more smoothly over lengthier steroid cycles like this one.
  • Nandrolone decanoate – As previously stated, this steroid is the foundation of many steroid cycles because it has both anabolic and progestogenic properties that are favorable to muscle building.
  • Winstrol – This steroid aids bodybuilders in preserving their gains at the end of a cycle, allowing them to remain in good shape when they must go off-cycle.

Advanced Steroid Cycle

A steroid cycle of 8-12 weeks is advised for experienced users. In this instance, people typically stack the anabolic steroids listed below:

  • Testosterone enanthate or cypionate – this fundamental steroid serves as the foundation for every potent steroid cycle and is superior to testosterone propionate, which is faster acting.
  • Nandrolone decanoate – This anabolic steroid has modest progestogenic activity, making it useful for both bulking and reducing phases.
  • Trenbolone is a powerful injectable steroid that can be used in quantities of 50-100 mg per day and has significant anabolic and androgenic qualities.
  • Masteron is an injectable steroid with modest anabolic and moderate androgenic properties. It’s particularly popular in bodybuilders’ cutting cycles because it helps burn fat without compromising muscle.

What are anabolic steroid side effects?

Anabolic steroids are testosterone derivatives (a hormone produced naturally by your body). They are mostly used to increase muscle mass while decreasing recovery times between sessions. Anabolic steroids have a variety of negative effects, some of which are reversible and subside after the steroids are stopped, while others are permanent. Long-term use may cause your testicles to shrink or shrink, as well as irreversible changes in your cholesterol levels. While all types of anabolic steroids pose possible health hazards, those with irreversible consequences are the most deadly.


Cut Steroid Cycle

Cut Steroid Cycle: The Best Way Bodybuilders Cut Down on Fat While Maintaining The Muscles Gained

We all want the ideal figure, but sometimes we need a little assistance to get there. If you want to trim or lose weight, you may be thinking if steroids are the correct choice for you. In this essay, we’ll discuss the many sorts of steroids and what makes them safe or dangerous. We’ll also give you some pointers on being safe while using steroids. So, if you’re ready to get started, keep reading!

Understanding Steroids

Before we go into the safest steroid for cutting, it’s important to understand a little bit about steroids in general. Anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) are a type of hormone that functions similarly to testosterone or DHT. They’re frequently used by those trying to gain muscle growth, which is why these medicines are also known as “steroids” or “roids.” While AAS can help build muscle, it’s vital to recognize that they can also have a number of detrimental health impacts. In fact, steroids are involved in more than half of all adverse medication reactions!

AAS can help with cutting since they make muscles appear fuller and more developed. However, this comes at a cost: there are numerous potential negative effects linked with steroid use, making them dangerous for the majority of people.

To make matters worse, certain steroids are marketed as “synthetic testosterone,” yet they are essentially separate substances with distinct modes of action. This means that even if two medications have the same goal—to increase muscle—they can have distinct effects on your body.

Types of Steroids and How They Work

Types of Steroids and How They Work

  • Anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS) are synthetic compounds that resemble natural steroid hormones such as testosterone. Although they can help you get bigger, faster, stronger (and more), the side effects are typically severe, including wrath, acne, baldness, stunted growth in teens, and even heart attacks if used heavily over an extended length of time.
  • Corticosteroids (glucocorticoids) – These steroids decrease your immune system and minimize inflammation. Some of these medications can alleviate muscle and joint pain while also increasing hunger and muscle mass, which is why many people use them without a prescription! However, it is vital to remember that their mechanism of action differs from AAS because the goal is to reduce edema rather than grow muscles. They are not typically utilized for performance enhancement because they are weaker than other forms of steroids. Although corticosteroids are frequently safe when taken correctly, potential adverse effects include depression, skin problems, and weight gain, as well as long-term chronic illnesses.
  • Estrogen blockers – These medications are also known as aromatase inhibitors. They function by blocking testosterone from turning into estrogen, which is why these drugs can help with water retention and fat loss. Of course, there is a catch: because testosterone is required for optimal sexual function and general well-being, some people experience symptoms such as decreased sex drive or feelings of “roid fury” after using these medicines for an extended period of time. They can also increase your risk of osteoporosis if taken for an extended length of time since they reduce bone density. Arimidex from Dragon Pharma is an excellent example of a highly potent estrogen blocker.

What is Cutting in Bodybuilding?

Now that you’ve learned about the many forms of steroids, it’s time to learn about cutting. The process of decreasing weight while retaining as much muscle mass as feasible is known as cutting. It’s frequently done in preparation for a competition or picture shoot, with the goal of appearing as thin and defined as possible.

There are numerous methods for losing weight, but the most frequent is to limit your calorie consumption while continuing to lift weights. This manner, you can burn fat while retaining muscle mass. (Of course, if you’re new to lifting, start slowly to avoid injuring yourself.)

Another popular way for cutting is to use a steroid cycle made expressly for this reason. These cycles typically include the use of anabolic steroids in conjunction with other medicines such as estrogen blockers or SERMs. By adopting a cycle, you can reduce adverse effects while still reaching your goals. Altamofen from Alpha Pharma is a good example of a SERM, and FERMA 2.5 from Dragon Pharma will be quite effective in stopping the conversion.

There are numerous forms of steroids, each with its own distinct mode of action. This can make determining which ones are safe to chop challenging. You can determine which steroids are ideal for you by learning the various types and how they operate. Then you’ll be able to use them correctly, resulting in the desired benefits while avoiding serious health hazards.

Best Steroids for Cutting

Best Steroids for Cutting

There are numerous forms of steroids, each with its own distinct mode of action. This can make determining which ones are safe to chop challenging. You can determine which steroids are ideal for you by learning the various types and how they operate.

Here is a list of some of the greatest cutting steroids:

  1. Anavar is a wonderful place to start if you’re new to steroids. It’s one of the mildest oral steroids available, and it won’t produce a lot of water retention or other side effects like mood swings or “roid anger,” so many individuals take it on a daily basis. However, keep in mind that its mode of action can cause strength loss if used for an extended period of time without stopping. Alpha Pharma’s Oxanabol is the most potent form.
  2. Winstrol – This steroid isn’t commonly used for bulking because it produces muscular hardening rather than mass gain. As a result, users frequently take it when cutting to avoid muscle loss while reducing fat storage. Although Winstrol has estrogenic activity, it is one of the gentler medications on our list and even has AI qualities. Some people use it in the early stages of a bulk to give their muscles a fuller and more defined appearance before adding a lot of mass. Alpha Pharma Healthcare’s Rexobol 50 is the most effective version.
  3. Testosterone is the most commonly used anabolic steroid and is virtually always used for bulking. However, there are numerous kinds available, and some can be used while cutting to maintain muscle while shedding fat. For example, testosterone propionate is frequently recommended due to its short half-life and ability to be injected only once per week. This makes it suitable for cutting cycles since you only need a small amount of an active ingredient in your body at any given time to sustain regular activities that support muscle gain and fat loss—not enough to cause side effects like gynecomastia and water retention. This is why Alpha Pharma’s Testorapid has been ranked the most effective for shortening cycles.
  4.   HGH – If you want a bulking steroid that can increase muscle mass while preserving quality, this one is the best. Human growth hormone is produced naturally in the body by the pituitary gland, but synthetic versions are also available. This medication does not cause water retention or many other bad side effects, only mild pain at the injection sites and high blood sugar levels if taken for an extended period of time. Because it enhances strength without adding body fat, it is popular among athletes as a bulking steroid. Using Maxtreme Pharma’s Soma-Max will deliver some remarkable results and has many great benefits in addition to its ability to be taken during a cutting cycle.
  5. Femara / Letrozole – If you’re new to steroids, Femara (Letrozole) can be a nice place to start. It is a non-steroidal aromatase inhibitor that aids in the reduction of estrogen in the body. This means that it can be used to prevent gynecomastia and other estrogen-related adverse effects. It’s also been proved to be excellent in increasing muscle firmness, thus it can help with cutting cycles. FERMA 2.5 from Dragon Pharma can be very beneficial when used in smaller doses to just slightly reduce estrogen levels, as estrogen is still required for muscle growth and fat burning.

Cutting Cycles

Although steroids can be used for cutting at any time, many people prefer to use them during a specific phase known as a “cutting cycle,” which is a short period of time (typically 6 to 8 weeks) during which steroids are used to reduce body fat while preserving muscle mass.

A cutting cycle can be set up in a variety of ways, but the most usual is to utilize a combination of steroids that function in distinct ways. This enables you to attack your fat storage from a variety of angles while avoiding harmful side effects.

As an example, consider the following:

  • Weeks 1 through 8: Use testosterone propionate (Testorapid – for 8 weeks) and Anavar (Oxanabol – only for the initial 4 weeks)
  • Weeks 4–8: From weeks 3–4, use FERMA 2.5 at a low dose.
  • Weeks 6–8: Add winstrol (Rexobol 50) to the mix to complete your cycle.

Maintaining a proper diet during any type of cycle, with or without steroids, is critical.


Although there are numerous medications available, not everyone reacts to them in the same manner. Because we all have different genetics and life experiences, what works for one person may not work for another. Furthermore, your body may require numerous cycles before adapting to a particular medicine or combination of treatments.

Talk with your provider or doctor about how these drugs will mix with any prescriptions you’re taking and/or any existing conditions that could cause difficulties when coupled with anabolic steroids for the greatest outcomes.

Finally, when using any form of steroid, use extreme caution and strictly adhere to the dose directions. Taking too much can result in hazardous adverse effects, so start slowly and gradually raise your dose as needed!

Fortunately, we have a skilled team here at Our Online US Pharmaceutical Store that can help you construct the perfect cycle for your body type and goals, including all of the preventative medications required to avoid any unwanted side effects.

We have a large selection of genuine and original pharmaceuticals that can be validated on the major medical manufacturer’s website, such as injectables, orals, PCT Care, anti-estrogens, and more! We also offer simple payment methods such as US Bank Transfer, PayPal, Credit Cards, and Major Cryptocurrencies, as well as discreet and assured delivery to the United States and Worldwide!


Best Steroid Cycle for Muscle Gain for Beginners in the Field

Steroid Cycles: Best Steroid Cycle for Muscle Gain for Beginners in the Field

Steroid cycles can be challenging, especially for beginners, because they are not simple. That is why we produced this piece specifically for you! This essay will discuss the reasons for the existence of steroid cycles, the benefits of having a good cycle, and finally some instances for beginners to consider.

What is a steroid cycle?

A steroid cycle is the time period in which these medications are used. It usually lasts a few weeks, and certain steroids can be taken at different stages of the cycle. The most typical steroid cycles are bulking and cutting. Bulking refers to using the medication to gain weight, whilst cutting refers to using it to lose fat.

Anabolic steroids and ergogenic drugs are the most common types of steroid cycles. Anabolic refers to the process of increasing muscle mass, whereas ergogenic refers to the process of improving performance.

There have been numerous reports of steroid cycles. Some are designed for newcomers/beginners, while others are designed for advanced users and even others for specific fitness goals. These cycles, which are based on personal experiences, are commonly seen on the internet.

Why is it necessary to cycle steroids?

Why is it necessary to cycle steroids?

The primary purpose of steroid cycles is to sustain/maintain muscle gains after your bulking or lowering cycle has concluded. So, if you’ve finished a bulking cycle but accumulated too much fat, a cutting cycle would be ideal for you to lose fat while keeping your gains.

Bodybuilders all around the world have used steroid cycles for decades. Because they are so good at making their next cycle, it is the only way to properly preserve earnings. After years of trial and error, they have now determined the ideal time to take each steroid for specific benefits.

Another reason for steroid cycling is to avoid any potential side effects of steroid use. Simultaneously, understanding how to minimize side effects while taking these drugs can be beneficial. This is where personal experience comes into play, because each user has a certain physique and metabolism rate that determines how they react to specific steroids.

Athletes also cycle steroids in order to avoid being tested positive for steroid use. This is a common reason for the need to cycle steroids because it can be detected in the system in a few of weeks depending on the medications discovered.

A beginner’ steroid cycle

Beginners may struggle with steroid cycling at first since it is complicated. This is why we’ve included an example of a safe steroid cycle for steroid newcomers.

Steroids needed for this steroid cycle:

To begin, these are the steroids you will need for this specific steroid cycle. Some of these steroids are prohibited or illegal in some countries, so verify your local laws before purchasing these pills.

  • Testosterone Propionate: The most basic and essential steroid for any cycle. Other forms of testosterone exist, but we’ll concentrate on this one because it’s the cheapest and safest. If you’re not sure how to get authentic products, we recommend reading our overseas source information first.
  • Anavar: Because it is the mildest oral steroid available, Anavar is a great steroid for beginners. It does not aromatize and has little side effects, thus we strongly recommend it if you are unsure about using anabolic steroids in general. Use it in conjunction with Testosterone Propionate to increase its potency.
  • Masteron is the best first steroid to use because it has little side effects and may be used by both men and women. It’s even regarded to be a good steroid for beginners because it doesn’t aromatize, so there’s no water retention or gynecomastia issues.
  • Omnadren: Omnadren is a testosterone mixture that aids in the prevention of a variety of ailments. Because it is a combination of four testosterones, the advantage of using this specific steroid is that it has minimal, if any, negative side effects.
  • Deca Durabolin: The best steroid for bulking because it adds a lot of growth in a short amount of time. The drawback is that Deca Durabolin aromatizes, thus users should take Nolvadex to help reduce the risk of gynecomastia.

How to do this particular steroid cycle:

How to do this particular steroid cycle:

It’s time to get into the nitty gritty of this steroid cycle. Use all of the steroids recommended in this article to get the best benefits while minimizing side effects.

  • Take 100mg of testosterone propionate every other day for 6 weeks. Excessive consumption will not increase advantages and may instead produce liver problems.
  • For 6 weeks, take 10mg of Anavar every day. Because it can affect your liver, this medicine should not be cycled for more than six weeks.
  • Masteron: Take 50mg every other day with testosterone propionate to help you look better.
  • Omnadren: For a total of eight weeks, you must take two amps per week.
  • Deca Durabolin: Take 200mg once a week at most. Take at least two days off per week to allow your body to recover from the steroids. Deca Durabolin aromatizes as well, thus users must take Nolvadex to reduce any undesirable effects.

This steroid cycle is appropriate for beginners who want to discover the benefits and drawbacks of each therapy. It contains all of the required prescriptions with little issues, as well as a proper strategy for how long to take each medication. It is not recommended to exceed dose amounts or stay for more than 8 weeks because it can result in more severe side effects.

The advantages of this steroid cycle

This steroid cycle will produce big gains in strength and size. This is one of the best steroid cycles for beginners because it gives you all of the benefits of anabolic steroids without any complications or side effects. This cycle is good for bulking since it promotes clean muscle tissue growth with no bloating.

Here is a more detailed breakdown of some of the positive effects of this steroid cycle:

  • Increased muscle mass
  • There are no signs of bloating.
  • There is no harm to the liver.
  • There is no estrogen conversion.
  • Enhanced energy levels
  • enhanced recovery
  • Red blood cell count has increased.
  • Increased libido
  • enhanced concentration

These are just a few of the numerous advantages that can be obtained when using a steroid cycle. However, before commencing any anabolic steroid use, always consult with your doctor to ensure that they will not cause long-term harm to your body.

The negative consequences of not cycling steroids

This steroid cycle is a great way for beginners to jump-start their bulking phase. However, there are risks and drawbacks to this. Remember that your first steroid cycle will be the most important and will shock your body, so do as much research as you can before starting this cycle.

The lack of testosterone in females is a big disadvantage of not cycling drugs. Only 1-2 weeks of anabolic steroids can induce significant and long-lasting changes in the appearance of women. The most common side effect is a lower voice, but it can also cause facial hair growth, clitoral enlargement, excessive weight gain, and even depression.

The development of gynecomastia is another potentially harmful side effect. This is a condition in which male breast tissue develops in males, which can be aggravated by testosterone aromatization or other anabolic medications.

This steroid cycle will help you achieve great gains, but there are some negative side effects to be aware of before you begin. Some of these negative consequences can have an impact on both your overall health and your bulking phase.

One undesirable side effect of these steroids is “roid rage,” which can cause mood swings and aggressiveness. If the person in question has a history of aggressive behavior or mental instability, this can be exceedingly dangerous.

Swelling in the hands and feet owing to water retention is another common adverse effect of this steroid cycle, but this usually disappears after the drugs are stopped.

The third potential side effect to be aware of is an increased risk of developing cardiovascular diseases. This could include high blood pressure, a heart attack, or a stroke.

When taking this steroid cycle, it is vital to maintain a well-balanced, high-protein diet to ensure that your muscles get all of the nutrients they need to grow. You should also take a multivitamin, omega fatty acids, and branched-chain amino acids during this period.

These are just a few of the side effects to be aware of before starting a steroid cycle. It is vital that you do your research before using any anabolic steroids so that you are aware of the consequences. This will enable you to make an informed decision based on all of the facts at your disposal.

You should check with a doctor before commencing this steroid cycle to ensure that it is acceptable for your body and that there are no adverse or hazardous interactions to be aware of. To get the maximum effects from this steroid cycle, you need also eat a balanced diet and exercise on a regular basis.


Caffeine and Fat Burning

Do you drink coffee? More importantly, do you use coffee to help with your training or performance?

I know there are some people that can’t touch the stuff before training or it results in a trip to the bathroom mid-workout. Personally, I love to sip on a cup of coffee for an early morning workout for a bit of a boost.

But does it help? Specifically with respect to fat burning, does caffeine help? And does it make a difference what time of day you have a cup of coffee in relation to your training?

A recent study looked to answer this question. They wanted to know if caffeine would boost fat burning.

What they did was have the experiment subjects have a drink 30 minutes before an aerobic exercise workout. The subjects included 15 males averaging 32 years old. The subjects did 4 sessions 7 days apart. This allowed them to experience all 4 test conditions of coffee, placebo, 8 AM training or 5 PM training.

The researchers controlled for fasting, exercise and other stimulants consumed. They wanted to make sure the subjects weren’t doing workouts before coming to the lab or slamming back a Red Bull either.

The researchers used indirect calorimetry to measure maximal fat oxidation (MFO).

So what did they find?

MFO and VO2max were greater in the PM than in the AM.

When the groups consumed caffeine there was 10.7% greater MFO in the morning (i.e. 8 AM) compared to the group that consumed a placebo. And with the 5 PM group MFO was 29% greater when caffeine was consumed instead of a placebo.

So the two big takeaways are that:

  1. Caffeine works and helps increase MFO
  2. Results were better with the afternoon versus the morning group

A few things to keep in mind include:

  • Would we see the same results for different ages rather than everyone of approximately 32 years?
  • Would we see the same results for women?
  • Would we see the same results for sedentary individuals? All the participants in this study were already active.
  • Would the results have differed if more caffeine was consumed? The subjects consumed 3 mg/kg bodyweight. So an 80 kg individual would ingest 240 milligrams of caffeine. (a cup of coffee has about 100 mg)

Lastly, don’t lose sight of the fact that the best time to exercise is when you can make time for it. Different chronotypes do better at different times of day. And although afternoon caffeine resulted in more MFO compared to the morning don’t forget of the fat burning powers of sleep. If an afternoon cup of coffee disrupts sleep it may not be worth it.

Ramírez-Maldonado, M., Jurado-Fasoli, L., Del Coso, J., Ruiz, J. R., & Amaro-Gahete, F. J. (2021). Caffeine increases maximal fat oxidation during a graded exercise test: is there a diurnal variation?. Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition18(1), 1-9.

Obesity to Become Main Cancer Risk

Growing up we always associated smoking with cancer. We’d have the school assemblies to prevent us from lighting up. The packages of cigarettes had images of disgusting gum and tooth disease caused by smoking. And we all knew a relative or loved one that was a smoker and passed away from cancer.

That could all change.

Obesity could overtake smoking as the main cancer risk by 2040 in women and soon after in men.

And with the pandemic this isn’t getting any better. Since this time last year most people have put on a few pounds, are less active and eating more junk food. And when the food delivery services show up in our neighbourhood it’s usually bringing fast food. Combine this with more people quitting smoking and it’s easy to see how obesity will overtake smoking as a greater risk for cancer.

So what’s the big deal with obesity?

Well fat isn’t inert tissue that gets added to the body and has no effects. It doesn’t just sit there quietly but is active. It sends signals to other tissues and organs that affect growth, metabolism and reproductive processes.

When we are obese we are vulnerable to tissue damage and developing tumours. And there are least 12 types of cancer linked to carrying excess weight. Regular exercise is important for cancer prevention specifically breast and colon cancer.

A recent study in the UK involved exercising mice three times per week for 30 minutes. These mice showed lower levels of inflammation, which can lead to the development of tumours. As well, the mice that exercised improved their metabolism, had less fat in their livers and moved more quickly.

In the UK there are 135,000 new cancers per year (about 4 in 10) deemed to be preventable. Exercise can be a great way to reduced the chance of obesity and thus lessen the chance of developing cancer.

Bianchi, A., Marchetti, L., Hall, Z., Lemos, H., Vacca, M., Paish, H., & Wilson, C. L. (2021). Moderate Exercise Inhibits Age-Related Inflammation, Liver Steatosis, Senescence, and Tumorigenesis. The Journal of Immunology206(4), 904-916.

Answers to all of your questions about creatine

After high school I remember training with my brother. And the goal wasn’t to improve performance in a sport. And it wasn’t to sprint faster. Or to rehab an injury.

It was purely for bodybuilding. We trained to get as big and strong as possible with more emphasis on the former.

And while we didn’t invest a dime into programming or coaching we always found it in the budget to have a tub of protein, some bars and creatine.

So while creatine has been available commercially to the average gym goer for over 30 years there are still a number of myths regarding this supplement. Some of the top supplement researchers and editors of the Journal of the International Society of Sports Medicine collaborated to put out a review of the more common questions that exist about creatine. The following is a brief summary of this review with the citation to follow.

Does creatine lead to water retention?

Researchers will distinguish between total body water (TBW), intracellular water (ICW) and extracellular water (ECW). Most studies do not show an increase in TBW. When loading creatine this is usually done at higher doses than during the maintenance phase and early research showed some water retention but didn’t distinguish between ICW and ECW.

The general understanding is that there is some evidence of water retention, primarily ICW, over the short term. Several studies show creatine doesn’t alter TBW (ICW or ECW) relative to muscle mass.

Does creatine damage the liver or kidneys?

After more than 20 years of research there are no adverse effects from taking the recommended dosage of creatine. Creatine and phosphocreatine are degraded to creatinine. The amount of creatinine in the blood is proportional to body mass and creatine intake.

There was a case study from the late 1990s when an individual did experience elevated levels of creatinine and usage was discontinued for this reason. Apparently this individual had previous renal/hepatic issues and was loading at 15 g per day. The case study makes no mention of the diet of the individual which can contribute to elevated levels of creatinine.

For healthy individuals, ingesting normal dosages, there are no known adverse effects for the kidneys or liver.

Does creatine cause dehydration or cramping?

During the loading phase of 20 g/ day for 5-7 days there may be an increase in body mass of 1-3 kg, which is mostly body water retention. The studies that do show dehydration/cramping don’t control for other supplements and beverages.

As well, a study looked at how many creatine users use the recommended daily dose and found 91% exceeded these amounts.

Another study had subjects put into two groups. 38 of them took creatine and another 34 took a placebo. Those that took creatine had less cramping, heat illness, dehydration, tightness, muscle strains and injuries.

And a study involving haemodialysis patients (n=10) that reported frequent cramping were given 12 grams of creatine before haemodialysis and saw a decreased frequency of cramping by 60%.

The take home message is the creatine does not appear in the research or anecdotally to result in cramping or dehydration.

Does creatine increase fat mass?

Whenever a substance is known to increase body mass, as creatine does, there may be concern for an increase in fat mass. This concern may be justified in that rarely do we add 100% muscle mass and zero fat mass when we increase our mass.

The literature is pretty clear and consistent on this however. There are numerous studies showing an increase in body mass, an increase in fat free mass yet no increase in fat mass. One study with swimmers showed no change in body composition.

A common criticism of the studies showing no increase in fat mass is that they are less than 8 weeks in duration and thus not long enough in duration to demonstrate a physiological change. There are more than enough studies greater than 8 weeks which show no significant change in fat mass.

Of interest was a study involving children with lymphoblastic leukemia. For 16 weeks some of the children received creatine and the others a placebo. Those taking creatine saw their fat mass decrease while those that didn’t take it saw an increase in their fat mass.

Supplementing with creatine may increase body mass without increasing fat mass.

Is a loading phase required?

If you’re familiar with using creatine as a supplement you’ll know there’s something called a ‘loading’ and a ‘maintenance’ phase. The loading phase involves taking creatine at 20-25 grams per day for 5 to 7 days to saturate the muscle. Once the loading phase is complete then the maintenance phase follows at doses of 3-5 grams per day.

A study compared loading versus simply going to the maintenance phase and determined that both resulted in an increase of muscle creatine concentrations by 20%. Loading speeds up the process but doesn’t add any additional benefits. Going straight to a loading phase delays but doesn’t limit the benefits of using creatine when used for at least four weeks.

When an athlete is looking to benefit from creatine in a short period of time i.e. less than 3 weeks, than a loading protocol would be preferred. If creatine will be used for a longer duration i.e. at least four weeks, than it would be fine to go straight to a maintenance phase, especially if avoiding or minimizing the increase in body mass is desirable.

Is creatine just for power or resistance athletes?

We know that creatine is a phosphagen and helps supply and replenish cellular energy for short burst, high intensity activities. So typically it has been sought out by athletes that need to display high levels of force in a short period of time. This would include sprinting, jumping, throwing and kicking among other actions.

But does creatine help other athletes and functions?

There is growing evidnce to suggest that it is. For example, when creatine is taken with carbohydrate or carbohydrate with protein there is greater glycogen storage compared to carbohydrate alone. Glycogen is the form of carbohydrate that we store in the muscle and liver and is important for training and recovery.

Those that supplement with creatine show less muscle damage and in a four week study with runners training up to 30 km those taking creatine experienced less muscular damage, inflammation and soreness.

Lastly, creatine appears to offer protective benefits to the brain and spinal cord and may be a good idea for those in collision sports and at risk for concussion.

Creatine offers many benefits and need not be limited to only those in power or resistance sports.

Below is a summary of each of the sections of the review. For more details and to read the sections not covered above see the citation below. The section below in italics is copied directly from the review.

Based on our evidence-based scientific evaluation of the literature, we conclude that:

  1. Creatine supplementation does not always lead to water retention.
  2. Creatine is not an anabolic steroid.
  3. Creatine supplementation, when ingested at recommended dosages, does not result in kidney damage and/or renal dysfunction in healthy individuals.
  4. The majority of available evidence does not support a link between creatine supplementation and hair loss / baldness.
  5. Creatine supplementation does not cause dehydration or muscle cramping.
  6. Creatine supplementation appears to be generally safe and potentially beneficial for children and adolescents.
  7. Creatine supplementation does not increase fat mass.
  8. Smaller, daily dosages of creatine supplementation (3-5 g or 0.1 g/kg of body mass) are effective. Therefore, a creatine ‘loading’ phase is not required.
  9. Creatine supplementation and resistance training produces the vast majority of musculoskeletal and performance benefits in older adults. Creatine supplementation alone can provide some muscle and performance benefits for older adults.
  10. Creatine supplementation can be beneficial for a variety of athletic and sporting activities.
  11. Creatine supplementation provides a variety of benefits for females across their lifespan.
  12. Other forms of creatine are not superior to creatine monohydrate.

Antonio J., Candow D.G., Forbes S.C., Gualano B., Ragim A.R., Kreider R.N., Rawson E.S., Smith-Ryan A.E., VanDusseldorp T.A., Willoughby D.S. & Ziegenfuss T.N. (2021). Common questions and misconceptions about creatine supplementation: what does the scientific evidence really show? Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition, 18(13).

MOTS-c – The Fountain of Youth Protein

When I think of longevity a couple of movies come to mind. Cocoon and The Curious Case of Benjamin Button cover this theme in different ways.

Or a quick history lesson takes us back to Ponce de Leon and the search for the fountain of youth.

Researchers at USC may have found the protein that confers anti-aging benefits.

The protein is MOTS-c and is a mitochondrial protein. Mitochonria can thought of as the powerhouse of the cell and are responsible much of our cellular energy. MOTS-c acts by heping promote metabolism amd maintaining homeostasis.

Previous research into MOTS-c has shown that it helps increase insulin
sensitivty and reverse obesity in mice.

In human when we exercise we see the level of MOTS-c is elevated almost 12x and remains elevated for up to four hours post-exercise.

What the research team at USC did was inject MOTS-c into mice of various ages and then measure their speed and agility, among other things. For mice, young is considered 2 months old, 12 months is middle age and old is 22 months.

The researchers injected the mice three times per week and had them perform a running test. The mice would warm-up for 5 minutes at 13 metres per minute. After five minutes the speed was increased one metre per minute for five minutes to reach 18 metres per minute. The mice then ran for up to 30 minutes at a top speed of 23 metres per minute.

What they found is the older mice i.e. 22 months old, were able to keep up and outrun the young and middle aged mice. As well, the older mice were more sure-footed compared to the younger mice.

This is encouraging and it appears MOTS-c may play a role in healthy aging. It helped with the metabolic fitness and physical capacity of the mice in this study. And MOTS-c was also able to reverse diet induced obesity and insulin resistance in mice as well.

While we shouldn’t expect the same results in humans as in mice this is more support regarding the importance of maintaining fitness and training as we age. This will not only allow us to have more years but a better quality of life with the years we add.

Reynolds, J. C., Lai, R. W., Woodhead, J. S., Joly, J. H., Mitchell, C. J., Cameron-Smith, D., & Lee, C. (2021). MOTS-c is an exercise-induced mitochondrial-encoded regulator of age-dependent physical decline and muscle homeostasis. Nature Communications12(1), 1-11.

Muscle Cells Attenuate Effects of Inflammation

Have you ever had one of those situations in life where somebody asks you a question of why something is and you can’t put into words the explanation.

For example, imagine a young toddler asking why is the sky blue?

What would you say? How would you explain it?

It’s something we know to be true but hard to put into words.

The same could be said for the benefits of exercise. We have known for a while that exercise helps with inflammation. But we didn’t know which cell type(s) were involved? And could this help maintain strength?

A research team at Duke University has been looking to answer this question. Specifically they wanted to see how effectively muscle cells would be at warding of chronic inflammation. This is different from acute inflammation that results from a specific episode such as a sprained ankle. When we roll an ankle playing pick up basketball there is an immune response to clear away cellular debris and helps the tissue heal.

Other times inflammation can extend over long periods of time causing damage and weakening tissues i.e. rheumatoid arthritis and sarcopenia. This type of chronic inflammation induces muscle atrophy. Exercise can counter these negative side effects.

The researchers were able to engineer muscle cells in-vitro i.e. in a petri dish. These cells were then exposed to interferon gamma for seven days. We normally see this chemical messenger elevated in muscle cells of those with chronic inflammation.

After the seven day period of exposure to interferon gamma, to induce a situation of chronic inflammation, the researchers then stimulated the muscle cells electrically to make them contract.

What they found was that the muscle cells that exercised i.e. that were electrically stimulated, did not show the effects of chronic inflammation. With long term inflammation, i.e. chronic inflammation, there is atrophy, or loss, of muscle tissue. This did not happen with the muscle cells that were electrically simulated.

What’s even more interesting is that the experiment only involved muscle cells. Typically we might associate health benefits with immune, stem or other type of cell. This is a new discovery of linking the protection from inflammation directly to muscle cells.

And as the images below show, exercise helps prevent the atrophy of muscle that typically is associated with chronic inflammation. If you stay active, particularly with resistance exercise, your muscles won’t get smaller and weaker.

The top L box shows muscle cells (red) in the control condition. In the top R we can see how inflammation changes the structure of the muscle cells. However in the bottom L adding exercise to the mix protects the muscle cells from the damage of inflammation.

We can train for a variety of reasons and this adds another very important reason to make sure we lift weights. This is especially true for those that suffer from inflammatory diseases such as asthma, celiac, diabetes, rheumatoid arthtitis, obesity and more.

Chen, Z., Li, B., Zhan, R. Z., Rao, L., & Bursac, N. (2021). Exercise mimetics and JAK inhibition attenuate IFN-γ–induced wasting in engineered human skeletal muscle. Science Advances7(4), eabd9502.

Go Hard or Go Frequently?

The other night at dinner we asked our five year old the question of which came first, the chicken or the egg?

She thought about it briefly and then answered confidently saying the egg.

To which we then asked her where the egg came from?

You can imagine the puzzled look on her face and could see the wheels turning in her head. She realized she it was going to be a hard question to answer.

This can be similar to exercise with respect to whether you should do long, slow steady-state exercise or short, high intensity intervals. The last few years have seen a surge in HIIT i.e. high intensity interval training, Tabata and other intense training protocols.

However during COVID we have also seen a number of endurance feats including Everesting, round the world cycling challenges and other long distance endurance challenges.

So which one is it? Should we go hard and short or long and slow?

Well a recent Canadian study looked to answer this question. Here’s what they did.

Twenty three adult, sedentary men were divided into two groups. One group did 30 second sprint intervals on the bike with two minutes rest. They repeated this four to six times and completed this workout three times per week. Over the course of the six study they completed almost one hour of cycling.

The other group rode the bike five times per week for 30-40 minutes at around 60% of their peak power. By the completion of the study this group had logged 15 hours on the bike.

Researchers wanted to know the impact these would have on fitness, body composition and blood pressure.

What they found is that those performing the endurance workouts i.e. 30-40 minutes of cycling saw greater improvements in:

  • diastolic blood pressure
  • abdominal fat
  • postprandial lipid tolerance

Both groups showed improvements in fitness whereas with the sprint group improved endothelial function. With both groups glycemic control was better on exercise versus sedentary days.

So what does this all mean?

Don’t get sucked in to the fad that exercise has to all-out, all the time. There were a number of benefits to performing longer duration cardiovascular exercise. Exercise is great for helping us metabolize carbohydrates and avoid the potential spikes and drops

A few other thoughts that come to mind:

  • This study was all men. Would women show the same results?
  • Endurance training demonstrated many benefits in this study. But they also did 15 times the work. Would the same benefits be seen at 10 times the work? 5 times?
  • All participants were sedentary at the start. How hard were they able to push on the sprints? How would the results differ if active subjects were used? If athletes were used?
  • Time is a huge constraint for many to achieve a fitness and health goal. We shouldn’t discount or over-look the attractiveness of being able to complete training in 1/15th of the time.
  • Ultimately the best training plan may be a combination of high-intensity short duration intervals and lower-intensity longer training sessions.


Petrick, H. L., King, T. J., Pignanelli, C., Vanderlinde, T. E., Cohen, J. N., Holloway, G. P., & Burr, J. F. (2020). Endurance and Sprint Training Improve Glycemia and VO2peak, but only Frequent Endurance Benefits Blood Pressure and Lipidemia. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise.